Solution to random Let's Encrypt Certbot Connection refused / Invalid response Authorization Errors

Since I upgraded my Certbot from version 1.7.0 to 1.11.0, I was getting different errors with different domain names when executing certbot renew command.

When renewing

certbot renew --cert-name --dry-run

I get Invalid response AuthorizationError:

Directly download new major release of macOS from Apple server and install it from your local Mac machine

The download manager of App Store application seems does not allow resumption of interrupted download of macOS installer. If you have a very slow internet connection or it disconnect for a while, the download will fail due to connection timed out and the downloading of macOS installer will not resume and it also does not provide a "resume" button to continue the download. You will need to restart the update and the download will begin from zero percent again. This is frustrating for Mac users who do not have fast internet every time they update their macOS.


How to ban visitors from a specific country by geolocation in Fail2ban

In this article, will show how to ban visitors from a specific country using Fail2ban and geoip. It is assumed that Fail2ban is already installed and configured in your server.

Lets install first the geoip:

yum install geoip

Create Fail2ban action script:

vi /etc/fail2ban/action.d/geohostsdeny.conf

Copy the following script:

Build CentOS 8 vagrant box from scratch in Windows

We need to install VirtualBox and Vagrant in Windows and download the DVD ISO image of CentOS 8 to be able to build CentOS 8 vagrant box. It is recomended to use Chocolatey (a software management automation for Windows) to install these software. To install Chocolatey, follow the procedure here.


  1. Install VirtualBox by executing the following command from the command line or from PowerShell:

Alternative way to get Linux image for Vagrant

Vagrant box downloads are extremely slow and there are no other trusted sources (links, torrents, magnets) available. But there's an alternative way to download your Linux image from faster source and use it with your Vagrant. Instead of downloading the Vagrant box, download the Oracle Virtualbox "ova" image file then convert it to Vagrant box image.


  1. Download the Oracle Virtualbox "ova" Linux image file. In this article, CentOS 8 "ova" Linux image file downloaded from will be used as an example.

Solution to Drupal 8 Redirect module causes infinite loop (ERR_TOO_MANY_REDIRECTS) in all the URLs except front page for anonymous user

When I tried to install Drupal 8 Varbase distribution and visited its sub pages as anonymous user (like Login page I get this error message in my browser:

This page isn’t working redirected you too many times.

Try clearing your cookies.


... and the URL changed to: